However, consensus seems to be general on some of their characteristics. Social movements are informal networks or groups of people with common purposes, shared beliefs, and solidarity that mobilize around specific issues generally through different means of protest and direct action. For some authors, social movements represent collective challenges to elites, authorities, other groups, or cultural codes by people in sustained interactions with elites, opponents, and authorities. Some authors argue that social movements are an important vehicle for participation by ordinary people in public politics and are seen as the vanguard of a new society.
Antitoxics groups[ edit ] Antitoxics groups are a subgroup that is affiliated with the Environmental Movement in the United States, that is primarily concerned with the effects that cities and their by products have on humans. This aspect of the movement is a self-proclaimed "movement of housewives".
As a result of this dumping the residents had symptoms of skin irritation, Lois Gibbsa resident of the development, started a grassroots campaign for reparations. Eventual success led to the government having to purchase homes that were sold in the development.
During the s, primary responsibility for clean air and water shifted to the federal government. Growing concerns, both environmental and economic, from cities and towns as well as sportsman and other local groups, and senators such as Maine's Edmund S. These laws regulated public drinking water systems, toxic substances, pesticides, and ocean dumping; and protected wildlife, wilderness, and wild and scenic rivers.
Moreover, the new laws provide for pollution research, standard setting, contaminated site cleanup, monitoring, and enforcement.
Groups such as the Sierra Club shifted focus from local issues to becoming a lobby in Washington and new groups, for example, the Natural Resources Defense Council and Environmental Defense, arose to influence politics as well. Larson [ citation needed ] Renewed focus on local action[ edit ] In the s President Ronald Reagan sought to curtail scope of environmental protection taking steps such as appointing James G.
Watt who was called one of the most "blatantly anti-environmental political appointees". The major environmental groups responded with mass mailings which led to increased membership and donations.
The large environmental organization increasingly relied on ties within Washington, D. At the same time membership in environmental groups became more suburban and urban.
Groups such as animal rights, and the gun control lobby became linked with environmentalism while sportsmen, farmers and ranchers were no longer influential in the movement. The wise use movement and anti-environmental groups were able to portray environmentalist as out of touch with mainstream values.
Larson [ citation needed ] "Post-environmentalism"[ edit ] Inwith the environmental movement seemingly stalled, some environmentalists started questioning whether "environmentalism" was even a useful political framework.
According to a controversial essay titled " The Death of Environmentalism " Michael Shellenberger and Ted NordhausAmerican environmentalism has been remarkably successful in protecting the air, water, and large stretches of wilderness in North America and Europe, but these environmentalists have stagnated as a vital force for cultural and political change.
Shellenberger and Nordhaus wrote, "Today environmentalism is just another special interest. Evidence for this can be found in its concepts, its proposals, and its reasoning.
What stands out is how arbitrary environmental leaders are about what gets counted and what doesn't as 'environmental. Werbach endorsed building an environmental movement that is more relevant to average Americans, and controversially chose to lead Wal-Mart's effort to take sustainability mainstream.
These "post-environmental movement" thinkers argue that the ecological crises the human species faces in the 21st century are qualitatively different from the problems the environmental movement was created to address in the s and s.
They argue that climate change and habitat destruction are global and more complex, therefore demanding far deeper transformations of the economy, the culture and political life. The consequence of environmentalism's outdated and arbitrary definition, they argue, is political irrelevancy.
These "politically neutral" groups tend to avoid global conflicts and view the settlement of inter-human conflict as separate from regard for nature - in direct contradiction to the ecology movement and peace movement which have increasingly close links: However, such groups tend not to "burn out" and to sustain for long periods, even generations, protecting the same local treasures.
Local groups increasingly find that they benefit from collaboration, e. However, the differences between the various groups that make up the modern environmental movement tend to outweigh such similarities, and they rarely co-operate directly except on a few major global questions.
In a notable exception, over 1, local groups from around the country united for a single day of action as part of the Step It Up campaign for real solutions to global warming. Groups such as The Bioregional Revolution are calling on the need to bridge these differences, as the converging problems of the 21st century they claim compel the people to unite and to take decisive action.
They promote bioregionalismpermacultureand local economies as solutions to these problems, overpopulationglobal warmingglobal epidemicsand water scarcitybut most notably to " peak oil "—the prediction that the country is likely to reach a maximum in global oil production which could spell drastic changes in many aspects of the residents' everyday lives.
Environmental rights[ edit ] Many environmental lawsuits turn on the question of who has standing; are the legal issues limited to property owners, or does the general public have a right to intervene?
Stone's essay, "Should trees have standing? Stone suggested that there was nothing absurd in this view, and noted that many entities now regarded as having legal rights were, in the past, regarded as "things" that were regarded as legally rightless; for example, aliens, children and women. His essay is sometimes regarded as an example of the fallacy of hypostatization.List of social movements.
Jump to navigation Jump to search Social movements are groupings of individuals or Reform movements in the United States; Reproductive justice; Right to life; Rural People's Movement; Salt March (Otherwise Known as the Salt Satyagraha movement).
The world has changed dramatically since In Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, an empire has crumbled, and new social movements have emerged to join those that endure from the past.
In China and other parts of Asia, as well as in Africa and Latin America, democracy movements replace, reform, or threaten established regimes. In the United States and Western Europe, a wave of more. A History of Social Movements in the U.S. A collection of links and resources relating to the history of social justice movements in the United States.
This article examines the historical origins and legislative development of the U.S. Social Security program. Focusing on the contributory social insurance program introduced in title II of the Social Security Act of , the article traces the major amendments to the original program and provides an up-to-date description of the major provisions of the system.
A compilation of essays on the people, ideas, and organizations important in the development of social welfare in the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
Entries have references to primary sources. 5 Social Movements That Have Galvanized in the Age of Trump 0 Donald Trump's election as the 45th president of the United States on Nov. 8, embodies the psychopathologies of a racially polarized country and is likely to herald the rise of a new proto-fascism that will further exacerbate divides.