Corruption and graft in the industrialization period of the united states

A Tale of Today The book co-written with Charles Dudley Warner satirized the promised ' golden age ' after the Civil War, portrayed as an era of serious social problems masked by a thin gold gilding of economic expansion. For them, "Gilded Age" was a pejorative term used to describe a time of materialistic excesses combined with extreme poverty. With respect to eras of American history, historical views vary as to when the Gilded Age began, ranging from starting right after the American Civil War ended,oror as the Reconstruction Era ended in

Corruption and graft in the industrialization period of the united states

A Tale of Today For them, "Gilded Age" was a pejorative term used to describe a time of materialistic excesses combined with extreme poverty. With respect to eras of American history, historical views vary as to when the Gilded Age began, ranging from starting right after the American Civil War ended,oror as the Reconstruction Era ended in The nation was rapidly expanding its economy into new areas, especially heavy industry like factories, railroadsand coal mining.

Inthe First Transcontinental Railroad opened up the far-west mining and ranching regions. Travel from New York to San Francisco now took six days instead of six months.

The new track linked formerly isolated areas with larger markets and allowed for the rise of commercial farming, ranching, and mining, creating a truly national marketplace. American steel production rose to surpass the combined totals of Britain, Germany, and France.

Corruption and graft in the industrialization period of the united states

Bythe process of economic concentration had extended into most branches of industry—a few large corporations, called " trusts ", dominated in steel, oil, sugar, meat, and farm machinery.

Through vertical integration these trusts were able to control each aspect of the production of a specific good, ensuring that the profits made on the finished product were maximized and prices minimized, and by controlling access to the raw materials, prevented other companies from being able to compete in the marketplace.

Frederick Winslow Taylor observed that worker efficiency in steel could be improved through the use of very close observations with a stop watch to eliminate wasted effort. Mechanization made some factories an assemblage of unskilled laborers performing simple and repetitive tasks under the direction of skilled foremen and engineers.

Machine shops grew rapidly, and they comprised highly skilled workers and engineers. Both the number of unskilled and skilled workers increased, as their wage rates grew. Railroads invented modern management, with clear chains of command, statistical reporting, and complex bureaucratic systems.

They hired young men ages 18—21 and promoted them internally until a man reached the status of locomotive engineer, conductor, or station agent at age 40 or so.

APUSH Period 6 Review. The migrations that accompanied industrialization transformed both urban and rural areas of the United States and caused dramatic social and cultural change. Dramatic social changes in the period inspired political debates over citizenship, corruption, and the proper relationship between business and . Nearly all of these immigrants were from northern and western Europe, which was the traditional point of origin for European immigrants to the United States. During the s, though, new immigrants began to come to the United States: Greeks, Slavs, Armenians, and Jews from various countries. Nearly all of these immigrants were from northern and western Europe, which was the traditional point of origin for European immigrants to the United States. During the s, though, new immigrants began to come to the United States: Greeks, Slavs, Armenians, and Jews from various countries.

Career tracks were invented for skilled blue-collar jobs and for white-collar managers, starting in railroads and expanding into finance, manufacturing, and trade. Together with rapid growth of small business, a new middle class was rapidly growing, especially in northern cities.

From to, patents were issued for new inventions—over ten times the number issued in the previous seventy years. George Westinghouse invented air brakes for trains making them both safer and faster.

Electric power delivery spread rapidly across Gilded Age cities. The streets were lighted at night, and electric streetcars allowed for faster commuting to work and easier shopping. The United States dominated the global industry into the s.

The rise of big business

Kerosene replaced whale oil and candles for lighting homes. Rockefeller founded Standard Oil Company and monopolized the oil industry, which mostly produced kerosene before the automobile created a demand for gasoline in the 20th century. The generation between and was already mortgaged to the railways, and no one knew it better than the generation itself.

Shipping freight and passengers[ edit ] First they provided a highly efficient network for shipping freight and passengers across a large national market.

Corruption and graft in the industrialization period of the united states

The result was a transforming impact on most sectors of the economy including manufacturing, retail and wholesale, agriculture, and finance. The United States now had an integrated national market practically the size of Europe, with no internal barriers or tariffs, all supported by a common language, and financial system and a common legal system.

Construction of railroads was far more expensive than factories. New York by was the dominant financial market. In —, they liquidated their American assets to pay for war supplies.

Civil engineers became the senior management of railroads. The leading innovators were the Western Railroad of Massachusetts and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in the s, the Erie in the s and the Pennsylvania in the s. Railroading became a lifetime career for young men; women were almost never hired.

A typical career path would see a young man hired at age 18 as a shop laborer, be promoted to skilled mechanic at age 24, brakemen at 25, freight conductor at 27, and passenger conductor at age White-collar careers paths likewise were delineated. Educated young men started in clerical or statistical work and moved up to station agents or bureaucrats at the divisional or central headquarters.

They were very hard to replace, and were virtually guaranteed permanent jobs and provided with insurance and medical care. Hiring, firing, and wage rates were set not by foreman, but by central administrators, in order to minimize favoritism and personality conflicts.Corruption in Business and Government In the decades between the end of the Civil War and the turn of the twentieth century, new technologies, cheap immigrant labor, maturing methods of industrialization, and a mechanized, streamlined transportation system of railroads and steam-powered ships proved a formula for astoundingly rapid growth in .

Indeed, popular excitement over national growth and industrialization only thinly glossed over the stark economic inequalities and various degrees of corruption of the era. Politicians of the time largely catered to business interests in exchange for political support and wealth.

The Gilded Age was a period of economic growth as the United States jumped to the lead in industrialization ahead of Britain.

Indeed, popular excitement over national growth and industrialization only thinly glossed over the stark economic inequalities and various degrees of corruption of the era. Politicians of the time largely catered to business interests in exchange for political support and wealth. However, the United States presents a puzzling exception to that relationship between democratization and corruption. In the United States' political development there is a puzzling association between widespread corruption and . Indeed, popular excitement over national growth and industrialization only thinly glossed over the stark economic inequalities and various degrees of corruption of the era (). Politicians of the time largely catered to business interests in exchange for political support and wealth.

The nation was rapidly expanding its economy into new areas, especially heavy industry like factories, railroads, and coal mining. The great industrial success of the U.S.

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and the fabulous lifestyles of the wealthy hid the many social problems of the time, including a high poverty rate, a high crime rate, and corruption in the government. History of the United States Industrialization and reform () The industrial growth that began in the United States in the early 's continued steadily up to and through the American Civil War.

Still, by the end of the war, the . Thesis: The industrial Revolution between changed the United States in many ways.

(Choose three topics to explain and give examples of changes brought by the industrial revolution, one topic for each body paragraph.).

Gilded Age - Wikipedia