Sunday, November 2, The Managed Heart:
Hochschild identified three emotion regulation strategies: Within bodily emotion work, one attempts to change physical symptoms in order to create a desired emotion. Within expressive emotion work, one attempts to change expressive gestures to change inner feelings. One becomes aware of emotion work most often when one's feelings do not fit the situation.
For instance, when one does not feel sad at a funeral, one becomes acutely aware of the feelings appropriate for that situation. According to Hochschildthe emotion management by employers creates a situation in which this emotion management can be exchanged in the marketplace.
For example, empirical evidence indicates that in typically "busy" stores there is more legitimacy to express negative emotions, than there is in typically "slow" stores, in which employees are expected to behave accordingly to the display rules;  and so, that the emotional culture to which one belongs influences the employee's commitment to those rules.
Moreover, supervisors' impressions of the need to suppress negative emotions on the job influence the employees' impressions of that display rule. Surface acting involves a "faking" process through which outward expressions are altered, yet internal feelings are left intact Although the underlying regulatory processes involved in each approach differ, the objective of both, is typically to show positive emotions, which are presumed to impact the feelings of customers and bottom-line outcomes e.
In the past, emotional labor demands and display rules were viewed as a characteristic of particular occupationssuch as restaurant workerscashiershospital workers, bill collectors, counselorssecretariesand nurses.
However, display rules have been conceptualized not only as role requirements of particular occupational groups, but also as interpersonal job demands, which are shared by many kinds of occupations. Specifically, the collection agency hired agents who seemed to be easily aroused.
The newly hired agents were then trained on when and how to show varying emotions to different types of debtors. As they worked at the collection agency, they were closely monitored by their supervisors to make sure that they frequently conveyed urgency to debtors. Bill collectors' emotional labor consists of not letting angry and hostile debtors make them angry and to not feel guilty about pressuring friendly debtors for money.
In restaurant work, Paules argues, workers' subordination to customers is reinforced through " cultural symbols that originate from deeply rooted assumptions about service work. Although they are stigmatized by the stereotypes and assumptions of servitude surrounding restaurant work, the waitresses studied were not negatively affected by their interactions with customers.
To the contrary, they viewed their ability to manage their emotions as a valuable skill that could be used to gain control over customers. Thus, the Philadelphia waitresses took advantage of the lack of employer-regulated emotional labor in order to avoid the potentially negative consequences of emotional labor.
Through eighteen months of participant observation research, Bayard De Volo found that casino waitresses are highly monitored and monetarily bribed to perform emotional labor in the workplace. Even though the waitresses have their own forms of individual and collective resistance mechanisms, intense and consistent monitoring of their actions by casino management makes it difficult to change the power dynamics of the casino workplace.
Specifically, when employers attempt to regulate worker-customer interactions, employers believe that "the quality of the interaction is important to the success of the enterprise", that workers are "unable or unwilling to conduct the interactions appropriately on their own", and that the "tasks themselves are not too complex or context-dependent.
At the McDonald's fast food restaurants in Leidner's study, these interactions are strictly scripted, and workers' compliance with the scripts and regulations are closely monitored.
For example, McDonald's workers are expected to greet customers with a smile and friendly attitude independent of their own mood or temperament at the time.
Leidner suggests that rigid compliance with these expectations is at least potentially damaging to workers' sense of self and identity. However, Leidner did not see the negative consequences of emotional labor in the workers she studied. Instead, McDonald's workers attempted to individualize their responses to customers in small ways.
Specifically, they used humor or exaggeration to demonstrate their rebellion against the strict regulation of their employee-customer interactions. Specifically, according to Larson and Yaophysicians engage in emotional labor through deep acting by feeling sincere empathy before, during, and after interactions with patients.
On the other hand, Larson and Yao argue that physicians engage in surface acting when they fake empathic behaviors toward the patient. Although Larson and Yao argue that deep acting is preferred, physicians may rely on surface acting when sincere empathy for patients is impossible.
Overall, Larson and Yao argue that physicians are more effective and enjoy more professional satisfaction when they engage in empathy through deep acting due to emotional labor.
For example, police must have a commanding presence that allows them to act decisively and maintain control in unpredictable situations while having the ability to actively listen and talk to citizens. According to Martina police officer who displays too much angersympathyor other emotion while dealing with danger on the job will be viewed by other officers as someone unable to withstand the pressures of police work, due to the sexist views of many police officers.
Ultimately, the ability of police officers to effectively engage in emotional labor affects how other officers and citizens view them. It is at the level of cities and counties that the responsibility lies for day to day emergency preparedness, firefighters, law enforcement, public education, public health, and family and children's services.
Citizens in a community expect the same level of satisfaction from their government, as they receive in a customer service -oriented job. This takes a considerate amount of work for both employees and employers in the field of public administration.
There are two comparisons that represent emotional labor within public administration, "Rational Work versus Emotion Work", and "Emotional Labor versus Emotional Intelligence. The reason for this is because they are on the front lines of the government, and are expected to by citizens to serve them quickly and efficiently.
When confronted by a citizen or a co-worker public administrators use emotional sensing to size up the emotional state of the citizen in need.Consistent with the conceptualisation of surface acting and deep acting strategies of emotion regulation, Gross has formulated the concept of antecedent and response focused emotion regulation.
Antecedent focused emotion regulation refers to the manipulation of the input into a system. Hochschild’s () interest in emotional labour derived from what she argues as “pernicious effects of both surface acting and deep acting on the labourer” (Cited in Ashforth & Humphrey, ).
Those firefighters more likely to "surface act" are more likely to experience burnout, while "deep acting" may be associated with lower burnout.
We will also investigate whether reporting specialized training as helpful to the management of emotions while in the field could modify the association between emotional labor and burnout.
Surface acting is the change of behavior, the managing of observable emotions to fit a role. Deep acting, on the other hand, is the managing of feelings for a role.
In the case of faking a smile, surface acting seems to be the act that creates a sense of cognitive dissonance in us. Surface acting (modifying facial expressions) and deep acting (modifying inner feelings) were tested as predictors of stress and of coworker-rated affective delivery, Consistent with a dramaturgical perspective, affective delivery ratings were negatively related to surface acting but positively related to deep acting.
Arlie Hochschild: The Presentation of Emotion emotions is through deep acting. Managing “Real” Feelings Hochschild draws on the work of Konstantin Stanislavski to make the distinction between surface and deep acting.
Stanislavski is the father of “method acting.” Method.