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Acrylamide and Cancer Risk What is acrylamide? Acrylamide is a chemical used mainly in certain industrial processes, such as in making paper, dyes, and plastics, and in treating drinking water and wastewater. There are small amounts in some consumer products, such as caulk, food packaging, and some adhesives.
Acrylamide is also found in cigarette smoke. Acrylamide can also form in some starchy foods during high-temperature cooking, such as frying, roasting, and baking.
Acrylamide forms from sugars and an amino acid that are naturally in food; it does not come from food packaging or the environment. How are people exposed to acrylamide? Cooking at high temperatures causes a chemical reaction between certain sugars and an amino acid asparagine in the food, which forms acrylamide.
Cooking methods such as frying, baking, broiling, or roasting are more likely to create acrylamide, while boiling, steaming, and microwaving appear less likely to do so. Longer cooking times and cooking at higher temperatures can increase the amount of acrylamide in foods further.
Acrylamide is found mainly in plant foods, such as potato products, grain products, or coffee. Acrylamide does not form or forms at lower levels in dairy, meat, and fish products. In cigarette smoke Acrylamide is also found in cigarette smoke.
This is probably one of the major ways smokers are exposed. On the job People who work in certain industries particularly in the paper and pulp, construction, foundry, oil drilling, textiles, cosmetics, food processing, plastics, mining, and agricultural industries may be exposed to acrylamide in the workplace, mainly through skin contact or by breathing it in.
Regulations limit exposure in these settings. Does acrylamide increase the risk of cancer? Researchers use 2 main types of studies to try to figure out if a substance causes cancer. In these studies, animals are exposed to a substance often in very large doses to see if it causes tumors or other health problems.
Researchers might also expose normal cells in a lab dish to the substance to see if it causes the types of changes that are seen in cancer cells. This type of study looks at cancer rates in different groups of people.
It might compare the cancer rate in a group exposed to a substance to the cancer rate in a group not exposed to it, or compare it to the cancer rate in the general population. But sometimes it can be hard to know what the results of these studies mean, because many other factors might affect the results.
In most cases neither type of study provides enough evidence on its own, so researchers usually look at both lab-based and human studies when trying to figure out if something causes cancer.
Studies in the lab Acrylamide has been found to increase the risk of several types of cancer when given to lab animals rats and mice in their drinking water. The doses of acrylamide given in these studies have been as much as 1, to 10, times higher than the levels people might be exposed to in foods.
Studies in people Since acrylamide was first found in certain foods indozens of studies have looked at whether people who eat more of these foods might be at higher risk for certain cancers.
Most of the studies done so far have not found an increased risk of cancer in humans. For some types of cancer, such as kidneyendometrialand ovarian cancerthe results have been mixed, but there are currently no cancer types for which there is clearly an increased risk related to acrylamide intake.
The studies that have been done so far have had some important limits. For example, many of the studies relied on food questionnaires that people filled out every couple of years.
These questionnaires might not have accounted for all dietary sources of acrylamide. In addition, people might not accurately remember what they have eaten when asked in personal interviews or through questionnaires.
While the evidence from human studies so far is somewhat reassuring, more studies are needed to determine if acrylamide raises cancer risk in people. The American Cancer Society supports the call by federal and international agencies for continued evaluation of how acrylamide is formed, its health risks, and how its presence in food can be reduced or removed.
What expert agencies say Several national and international agencies study substances in the environment to determine if they can cause cancer. A substance that causes cancer or helps cancer grow is called a carcinogen.
The American Cancer Society looks to these organizations to evaluate the risks based on evidence from laboratory, animal, and human research studies.Ursula A. Matulonis, MD - Medical Oncology. Ursula A.
Matulonis, MD is Chief, Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School.
Her research focuses on targeted therapies for gynecologic malignancies, with a specific interest in the genetic changes in ovarian cancer and ho. Cystectomy is a medical term for surgical removal of all or part of the urinary leslutinsduphoenix.com may also be rarely used to refer to the removal of a cyst.
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Two main types of cystectomies can be performed. Ovarian Cancer Research Papers What is perhaps most perplexing about cancer is that while the generic term means an overgrowth of tissue, its cause, pathophysiology and treatment is different depending on which area of the body it effects.
How to Write a Research Paper on Ovarian Cancer. The hallmarks of cancer comprise six biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumors. The hallmarks constitute an organizing principle for rationalizing the complexities of neoplastic disease.
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