Policy is a law, regulation, procedure, administrative action, incentive, or voluntary practice of governments and other institutions.
Rationale for Decentralization The purpose of this section is to provide a broad overview of the many different types of decentralization which can be occurring across countries and even within the same country and sector.
Distinguishing among different types of decentralization facilitates the discussion of design and particularly impact.
For example, the type of decentralization selected within a country will depend on its design--which will depend on the political structure and administrative issues of that country.
The impact of decentralization will differ depending on what type of decentralization is taking place, the political, fiscal and administrative arrangements which characterize the decentralization and what the objectives of decentralization are.
It is important to introduce consistency in any discussion of decentralization to avoid "comparing apples and oranges" and to ensure that we can draw lessons where applicable.
The term "decentralization" embraces a variety of concepts which must be carefully analyzed in any particular country before determining if projects or programs should support reorganization of financial, administrative, or service delivery systems. Different types of decentralization should be distinguished because they have different characteristics, policy implications, and conditions for success.
Types of Decentralization Types of decentralization include political, administrative, fiscal, and market decentralization. Drawing distinctions between these various concepts is useful for highlighting the many dimensions to successful decentralization and the need for coordination among them.
Nevertheless, there is clearly overlap in defining any of these terms and the precise definitions are not as important as the need for a comprehensive approach. Political, administrative, fiscal and market decentralization can also appear in different forms and combinations across countries, within countries and even within sectors.
Choosing the Most Appropriate Form of Decentralization Under appropriate conditions, all of these forms of decentralization can play important roles in broadening participation in political, economic and social activities in developing countries.
Where it works effectively, decentralization helps alleviate the bottlenecks in decision making that are often caused by central government planning and control of important economic and social activities. Decentralization can help cut complex bureaucratic procedures and it can increase government officials' sensitivity to local conditions and needs.
Moreover, decentralization can help national government ministries reach larger numbers of local areas with services; allow greater political representation for diverse political, ethnic, religious, and cultural groups in decision-making; and relieve top managers in central ministries of "routine" tasks to concentrate on policy.
In some countries, decentralization may create a geographical focus at the local level for coordinating national, state, provincial, district, and local programs more effectively and can provide better opportunities for participation by local residents in decision making.
Decentralization may lead to more creative, innovative and responsive programs by allowing local "experimentation. But decentralization is not a panacea, and it does have potential disadvantages.
Decentralization may not always be efficient, especially for standardized, routine, network-based services. It can result in the loss of economies of scale and control over scarce financial resources by the central government. Weak administrative or technical capacity at local levels may result in services being delivered less efficiently and effectively in some areas of the country.
Administrative responsibilities may be transferred to local levels without adequate financial resources and make equitable distribution or provision of services more difficult. Decentralization can sometimes make coordination of national policies more complex and may allow functions to be captured by local elites.
Also, distrust between public and private sectors may undermine cooperation at the local level.Division for Public Economics and Public Administration Department of Economic and Social Affairs RETHINKING PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: policy role, many States have opted for competition in a variety of service delivery areas.
The essential in improving the effectiveness and efficiency of public administration and an organic part.
The essential role of the public health sector in TB control is to plan, coordinate, and evaluate TB control and prevention efforts. This role requires that state and local health departments focus and. O ver the past two years, state legislators across the country have launched an unprecedented series of initiatives aimed at lowering labor standards, weakening unions, and eroding workplace protections for both union and non-union workers.
This policy agenda undercuts the ability of low- and middle-wage workers, both union and non-union, to earn a decent wage. exchange ideas on approaches that are critical to public policy and management The role of public administration in governance is a continuing topic of discussion The World Economic Forum’s tracking of public opinion in 14 countries – Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Mexico, Nigeria.
Rationale for Decentralization; The purpose of this section is to provide a broad overview of the many different types of decentralization which can be occurring across countries and even within the same country and sector.
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