Seizing the Initiative Through Creative Thinking Versus Reacting to the Enemy local copyby Grothe, SAMS paper, Leadership must be committed to learning, underwrite experimentation, and create an environment that generates creative thought and innovation. Doctrine must incorporate more aspects of innovation, creative and critical thinking and innovative leadership. The most critical area the Army must focus change in is within Professional Military Education for field grade officers.
Readings in Educational Psychology Educational Psychology Interactive Abstract Improving individuals' and groups' abilities to solve problems and make decisions is recognized as an important issue in education, industry, and government. Recent research has identified a prescriptive model of problem solving, although there is less agreement as to appropriate techniques.
Separate research Thinking and decision making personality and cognitive styles has identified important individual differences in how people approach and solve problems and make decisions. This paper relates a model of the problem-solving process to Jung's theory of personality types as measured by the MBTI and identifies specific techniques to support individual differences.
The recent transition to the information age has focused attention on the processes of problem solving and decision making and their improvement e.
In fact, Gagneconsiders the strategies used in these processes to be a primary outcome of modern education. There is concurrent and parallel research on personality and cognitive styles that describes individuals' preferred patterns for approaching problems and decisions and their utilization of specific skills required by these processes e.
Researchers have studied the relationship between personality characteristics and problem-solving strategies e. One conclusion that may be drawn from these investigations is that individual differences in problem solving and decision making must be considered to adequately understand the dynamics of these processes Stice, Attention must be paid to both the problem-solving process and the specific techniques associated with important personal characteristics.
That is, individuals and organizations must have a problem-solving process as well as specific techniques congruent with individual styles if they are to capitalize on these areas of current research.
McCaulley attempted to do this by first focusing on individual differences in personality and then by presenting four steps for problem solving based on Jung's four mental processes sensing, intuition, thinking, and feeling. Another strategy would be to consider first the problem-solving process and then to integrate individual preferences or patterns within this process.
This second strategy is the perspective of this paper. The purpose of this paper is to relate a model of the problem-solving process to a theory of personality type and temperaments in order to facilitate problem solving by focusing on important individual differences.
The integrated process is applicable to a variety of individual and group situations. Problem-Solving and Decision-Making Process Problem solving is a process in which we perceive and resolve a gap between a present situation and a desired goal, with the path to the goal blocked by known or unknown obstacles.
In general, the situation is one not previously encountered, or where at least a specific solution from past experiences is not known. In contrast, decision making is a selection process where one of two or more possible solutions is chosen to reach a desired goal. The steps in both problem solving and decision making are quite similar.
In fact, the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Most models of problem solving and decision making include at least four phases e. Each phase of the process includes specific steps to be completed before moving to the next phase.
These steps will be discussed in greater detail later in this paper.Dartmouth Writing Program support materials - including development of argument. Fundamentals of Critical Reading and Effective Writing.
Mind Mirror Projects: A Tool for Integrating Critical Thinking into the English Language Classroom (), by Tully, in English Teaching Forum, State Department, Number 1 Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum Project, Metropolitan Community College. Think Smarter: Critical Thinking to Improve Problem-Solving and Decision-Making Skills is the comprehensive guide to training your brain to do more for you.
Written by a critical thinking trainer and coach, the book presents a pragmatic framework and set of tools to apply critical thinking techniques to everyday business issues. The relationship between critical thinking and decision-making is much closer than what most people think.
Once you look at the meanings of critical thinking and show more content Critical thinking is examining assumptions - not simply accepting arguments and conclusions at face value. click here Decision Making and Problem Solving by Herbert A. Simon and Associates.
Associates: George B. Dantzig, Robin Hogarth, Charles R. Piott, Howard Raiffa. Executive Summary. Reprint: RB. When an executive makes a big bet, he or she typically relies on the judgment of a team that has put together a proposal for a strategic course of action. This document is designed as an introduction to thinking ethically.
It is also available as an app. We all have an image of our better selves -- of how we are when we act ethically or are "at our best." We probably also have an image of what an ethical community, an ethical business, an ethical.