CHAPTER I Because she was only fifteen and busy with her growing up, Lucia's periods of reflection were brief and infrequent; but this morning she felt weighted with responsibility.
Retrieved Sep 26 from https: Two of the protesters tied ropes to the rig, lowered themselves and their sign, "Globalization Kills Our Forests," to within a few feet of the torrent below, and refused to cooperate with rescuers who were dispatched from local fire stations to "rescue" them.
The Earth Firsters were eventually coaxed to safety and charged with felony criminal endangerment. At their arraignment they denied that they had put the firefighters at risk, demanded to be set free, and ridiculed the conditions of their release on bail. One defendant brandished what a local newspaper called her "flame-and-monkey-wrench tat-toos," an emblem, apparently, of her willingness to wreck rather than to respect government.
Groups as diverse as ACT UP gay rightsCritical Mass environ-mental bicyclistseven the archconservative Catholic League are getting on the civil disobedience bandwagon. They should instruct their students on the meaning of civil disobedience and then practice it. ACT UP, for instance, says its "fusion of organized mass struggle and nonviolence Indeed, as even the Catholic League president insinuated, our schools, incubators of civic culture, play a significant role in instructing students about civil disobedience.
But are American schools teaching the fundamentals of the social contract? Do our teachers appreciate that there is more to civil disobedience than mere self-expression or simple claims on conscience? Gandhi, for instance, while leading a massive populist movement against British occupation of India in the s and sgrew distrustful of mass demonstrations because participants were unwilling to go through the difficult process of purifying their actions; that is, grounding their activism in religious faith and human dignity.
Martin Luther King, who warned that civil disobedience risked anarchy, went to jail "openly, lovingly, and with a willingness to accept the penalty. An unjust law is a human law that is not rooted in eternal law and natural law.
Respect for judicial process is a small price to pay for the civilizing hand of law, which alone can give abiding meaning to constitutional freedom. Banfield sounded an alarm that should resonate for teachers, administrators, and curriculum committees today as they consider their civic education duties.
Unfortunately, contemporary social studies practice runs the risk of increasing, more than decreasing, the likelihood that students leave schools as mere children. Even aside from the question of whether schools are adequately exposing students to ideas of political theorists like Locke and Mill much less to those of Plato, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, or Thomas Jeffersonthe learning theory known as "constructivism" has encouraged the ahistorical trend.
Now widely accepted among educators, constructivism has, inadvertently perhaps, undermined a sense of responsibility to the larger community by, as Diane Ravitch has observed, encouraging students to "construct Students with a faulty moral compass and nothing but half-baked opinions come away from the classroom thinking that laws are simply inconvenient obstacles to achieving personal goals.
One developed by Gallaudet University, for instance, invites high school students to compare the Underground Railroad with some other act of civil disobedience in U. Even the best of social studies materials can set students on the wrong track. According to Gandhi, who was also known as Mahatma, or "Great Soul," this is the time when practitioners must make a "total moral commitment," that is, commit themselves to "a living faith in a living God" and not to a "useful political strategy in a specific situation.
King, too, urged his followers to steel themselves to passive nonviolence in the manner of Jesus Christ. Nor does the lesson discuss the difference between a fundamental principle and a personal desire or between legal protest, civil disobedience, and purely criminal activity, much less the threats that each poses to a democratic society.
In these and other lessons, the teacher is directed to place the burden on the student to "construct" his or her own understanding of civil disobedience--a notion that contradicts the beliefs of the most profound protesters.
In matters of civil disobedience such constructivism only pushes students toward a naive belief in the primacy of conscience which can easily become a synonym for self-centeredness.
One widely used 8th-grade text, American Odyssey, by Gary Nash, contends that King followed the "Gandhian strategy of nonviolenceClose As a second-best or substitute goal, however, uncivil obedients may aim to reshape the “law in action,” 48 48 For the canonical exposition of the distinction between law in action (or the “real rules”) and law in books (or the “paper rules”), see Roscoe Pound, Law in Books and Law in Action, 44 Am.
L. Rev. 12 (); see also. Lopach and Luckowski, the authors of the article ‘Uncivil Disobedience: Violating the Rules for Breaking the Law” focus primarily on the act of civil disobedience.
The authors have explained the danger of unthinking obedience to other individual or group authority. Although the definition states that it is in fact executed without violence, as Lopach and Luckowski state in their article “Uncivil Disobedience: Violating Rules for Breaking the Law”, some types of civil disobedience tend to put lives in danger i.e.
rescuers, bystanders or the . Uncivil Disobedience. Violating the rules for breaking the law But they must state clearly that civil disobedience differs from peaceful and legal protest; that civil disobedience involves violating a law that a rightly formed conscience determines to be in conflict with a fundamental principle of human dignity; and that civil disobedience.
Disobedience as a Psychological and Moral Problem, Erich Fromm. **Uncivil Disobedience: Violating the Rules for Breaking the Law, James L.
Lopach and Jean A.
Luckowski ** From Antigone, Jean Anouilh (adapted and translated by Lewis Galantiere). A new kind of civil disobedience came to Missoula, Montana, recently.
On a bridge over the Clark Fork River, a group from Wild Rockies Earth First! blocked a truck carrying logs from the Bitterroot Forest.